WVGES logo Metadata of the Coal Bed Mapping Project GIS Coverages


West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey expects that these data will be 
utilized only within your organization and will not be given or sold to others 
outside your firm or organization except as results in appropriate conventional 
research reports and maps.  These data may not be used in computerized or other 
databases made available to third parties.  

Acknowledgement of the West Virginia Geological Survey is expected in 
products derived from these data.

These data were geo-referenced at 1:24000 scale, and therefore may not be 
appropriate for use at more local scales.  

Each coal bed has the following coverages/themes:

1) mining/remaining resources polygons
2) coal map boundaries
3) the elevation contour arcs
4) the control point location coverage for the elevation models.
5) net coal thickness polygon coverage with 6 inch intervals.
6) the control point location coverage for the thickness model.
7) percent parting polygon coverage with 5% intervals
8) total coal bed thickness polygon coverage with 6 inch intervals

Optionally, several coverages may also exist to provide supplementary 
information about the mining.  These include 
1) a vector coverage of coal discontinuities
2) a vector coverage delineating mine boundary extents that are 
questionable or unknown
3) and a point coverage showing additional maps identifiers that were 
used to create a particular mine polygon.
  
Further explanation of each of these coverages/themes and how they were created 
is given at the end of this file in the 'METADATA' section.  Fully FGDC 
compliant metadata for these data sets is being developed.

In some rare occasions, the three thickness models may not be calculated due to 
insufficient data control but an elevation and overburden grid always exist.  


****METADATA****

Projection information for all data sets:

  Grid_Coordinate_System_Name:  Universal Transverse Mercator
    UTM_Zone_Number:  17
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian:  -81.0             
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin:  0.0
      False_Easting:  500000
      False_Northing:  0
  Planar_Distance_units:  meters
  Horizontal_Datum_Name:  North American Datum of 1927
  Ellipsoid_Name:  Clark 1866

Time Period for creation of the data:

The coal bed modeling was based on the stratigraphic point data available to 
the geological survey as of a particular time period. Thickness and elevation
models were created during the time period of 2000 - 2001 for Raleigh County
and during the time period of 1997 - 1998 for Fayette County.  Thickness and
elevation models were created during the time period of 2000 - 2001 for Hancock,
Brooke, Ohio, Marshall, Wetzel, Marion, Harrison and western Monongalia counties.
These models were created during the time period of 1999  2000 for eastern 
Monongalia County.  Mine compilations for all coal beds were updated in 2003
using maps current as of January 1, 2003.

Information pertinent to multiple coverages/themes/grids:

  Coal Stratigraphic Database
    West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey's Coal Stratigraphic Database
    contains location and stratigraphic data for approximately 100,000 points.  
    Data has been obtained from a variety of sources over the last 100 years.  
    Some data points were collected in the field by Survey geologists.  
    Frequently, drill hole data has been obtained directly from coal companies 
    and from permitting files at the WV Department of Environmental Protection.  
    Other data points were taken from mine maps.

  Thickness Models
    A "coal bed" may be composed of multiple, interbedded layers of coal and 
    subordinate layers of non-coal lithologies, such as shale or sandstone. 
    Therefore, a data point for a specific coal bed may contain multiple 
    stratigraphic records, one for each layer.  The net coal thickness value is 
    the sum of the thicknesses of each individual stratigraphic record 
    designated as "coal" within a specific bed.  This value is calculated for 
    each data point for each specific bed.

    The subordinate, non-coal layers in a coal bed are referred to as 
    "partings".  The parting thickness value is the sum of the thicknesses of 
    each individual, non-coal stratigraphic record within a specific bed.  This 
    value is also calculated for each data point for each specific bed.

    These calculated parting thickness and net coal thickness values are the 
    basis for the grid thickness models for each coal bed which are calculated 
    by interpolation between the discrete data points.  (The total bed thickness 
    grid model is calculated from the sum of the parting thickness and net Coal 
    thickness grids.)

    Surface III mapping software was used for the point interpolation.  This 
    mapping program was researched  and developed by the Kansas Geological 
    Survey and  Surface III is a marketed by Interactive Concepts, Inc. Standard 
    interpolation methods were employed, however the actual interpolation 
    parameters vary somewhat for each coal bed.  The individual parameters are 
    not provided within this document, however, they are available upon request.  
    These parameters will be included in the FGDC compliant metadata being 
    developed.

  Mine Maps
   Mine Maps are the primary source for compilation of the underground mined 
   areas.  The sources of these mine maps are:
     1) U.S. Office of Surface Mining(OSM) Mine Map Repository
      The repository contains aperture cards for all historic mine map documents 
      received and microfilmed by OSM.  West Virginia Miner's Health Safety and 
      Training forward final paper copy mine maps for closed mines to the OSM 
      Mine Map Repository.  Also, paper mine maps acquired by the WVGES from 
      outside sources that are not represented by an existing aperture card are 
      sent to the OSM Mine Map Repository.  Each map is assigned a unique 
      identifying number by OSM.  Copies of the aperture cards for maps in West
      Virginia are maintained at WV Geological Survey.  The scales of the 
      original (before shot with camera) mine maps range from 1:1200 to 
      1:100000.
    2) West Virginia Miner's Health Safety and Training (WVMHST)
      Maps of current mining are obtained by WVGES through the appropriate 
      regional office of the WVMHST. Paper copies are made and filed at WVGES.  
      The originals are returned to WVMHST.  The scale of these maps typically 
      range from 1:1200 to 1:4800.  


  Apcard Identifier
    An identifier to the source of a spatial feature from a mine map.  If the 
    map was obtained from the Office of Surface Mining's (OSM) Mine Map 
    Repository, then OSM has assigned a 6 character identifier between 300000 
    and 500000 to the map.  Maps obtained from WV Miner's Health, Safety and 
    Training are assigned a 6 character identifier between 900000 and 999999 by 
    WVGES.  Since there is frequently more than one mine on a single map, an 
    alphabetic suffix was added to uniquely identify each underground mine on a 
    map.  Since some maps contained more than 26 mines, the alphabetic suffix 
    is two characters, from "A " to "ZZ" (always in caps).  Other spatial 
    features, such as geologic discontinuities, are not uniquely identified and 
    only have the 6 character identifier to the source mine map.

Information for each type of coverage/theme/grid:

Mined and Remaining Coal (ALLMNG)
  Description
    This coverage divides the mapped area of each coal bed into polygons of
    mined areas and un-mined (remaining resource) areas.  The mined areas are 
    further differentiated by the method of mining - underground, surface, or 
    auger.  The outer boundaries of this coverage are described in the COALBNDS
    coverage.  
  Polygon attribute names:
    typ
    apcard
    mine_name
    comp_name
    permit
    comment
    year
  Attribute description:
    typ (binary)
      A code defining whether the polygon represents a remaining coal resource 
      or mined-out area.  If the polygon represents a mined-out area, then this 
      code indicates whether it was undergound, surface or auger mined.  Codes:
        0 : Eroded  
        1 : Remaining Coal
        2 : Surface Mined
        3 : Auger Mined
        4 : Underground Mined 
    apcard
      An identifier to the Aperture Card source of a mine polygon; 8 characters long.  Only 
      underground mine polygons and auger mine polygons have a value for this 
      attribute.  Auger mine polygons only have the 6 character identifier 
      without an alphabetic suffix.  The apcard value for auger mine polygons 
      are not unique and no other attributes (mine_name, comp_name, etc.) are 
      filled in for auger mine polygons.
    mine_name
      A text field (50 characters) containing the name of the mine represented 
      by this polygon .  Only Underground Mine polygons have a value for 
      this attribute.  It may contain the value of "UNKNOWN".    
    comp_name
      A text field (50 characters) containing the company name for the mine 
      represented by this polygon.  Only Underground Mine polygons have a 
      value for this attribute.  It may contain the value of "UNKNOWN".    
    permit
      A text field (10 characters) containing the permit number for the mine 
      represented by this polygon.  Only recent underground mine polygons
      have a value for this attribute.  All others contain the value "NDE" 
      (no data entered).  There have been many naming conventions for permits 
      throughout WV's history.  For a more comprehensive discussion of these 
      naming conventions, contact WV Miner's Health Safety and Training.
    comment
      A text field containing a comment that the project geologists found useful 
      when researching the mine maps.  Only Underground Mine polygons have a 
      value for this attribute.
    year (binary)
      Year of the mine map from which the mine polygon was obtained.  An unknown 
      year value if represented by a zero.  Only Underground Mine polygons have 
      a value for this attribute.
  Lineage
    Underground, augered, and surface mined areas and attributes are 
    obtained from mine maps.  Surface mined polygons are also extracted from 
    geo-referenced tifs of 7.5" topographic maps and from air photos.    
    Documents are visually examined for verification of location and are 
    selected to best represent (construct) an entire mined area polygon 
    and/or to capture coal bed elevation and/or thickness point data.  
    These are scanned and a vector coverage of each mine image is created 
    by on-screen digitizing the outside edges of the mine.  Internal 
    polygons of remaining coal are preserved and assigned a different 
    polygon type.  

Coal Map Boundaries (COALBNDS)
  Description
    This coverage outlines the area of the bed as mapped to date and describes 
    the type of each boundary.  Boundary types include the outcrop line (surface 
    trace representing the intersection between the coal bed and the land
    surface); stratigraphic edge of the bed (where the bed becomes absent in the 
    rock column); the temporary extent of mapping to date, the final extent of 
    mapping (for example, near a state line); and the adequate data control 
    boundary (beyond which data is too sparse for mapping).
  Arc Attribute Names
    boundtyp
  Attrubute Description
    boundtyp (binary)
      Code denoting type of boundary.  Codes:
        1 Coal Outcrop
        2 Stratigraphic Termination Boundary
        3 Temporary Mapping Extent
        4 Final Mapping Extent
        5 Adequate Data Control Boundary
  Lineage
    The 1:24000 hypsography, point hypsography and hydrography coverages from 
    Digital Line Graphs provided by WVU GIS Technical Center were used to 
    generate a 10 meter surface elevation grid of topography for each 7.5' 
    quadrangle using Arc/Info's 'topogrid' program.  An elevation grid of each 
    coal bed was subtracted from the topography grid to obtain an overburden 
    grid for each coal bed.  This overburden grid was then contoured to connect 
    zero value grid cells which produced an outcrop line for each 7.5' 
    quadrangle for the coal bed.  Outcrops by coal bed by quadrangle were 
    edge-matched to form an outcrop vector coverage for the extent of each coal 
    bed.  A polygon defining the mapped extent of each coal bed was then 
    constructed by adding the lines representing the other boundary types.

Structural Contours (ELVCNT)
  Description
    This coverage contains the coal bed elevation (structural) contour lines.  
    These lines depict the variation in elevation of the base of the coal bed in 
    relation to sea level.  Units are in feet. The contour interval used is 
    either 20 or 40 feet, matching the 7.5-minute topographic map  (published by 
    US Geological Survey) of the area.  The elevation of a coal bed is one 
    component used to delineate the geographic area underlain by the coal bed.  
    The elevation of a coal bed is used to determine the intersection of the 
    coal bed and the land surface; which is defined as the outcrop line of the 
    bed.  The elevation of the coal bed also defines how deep a coal bed is 
    beneath the land surface.  Elevation contour lines delineate the tectonic 
    folding, or geologic structure of a coal bed.  Knowledge of the geologic 
    structure of a coal bed is very important in mine planning and in 
    investigating such environmental problems as mine drainage. Coal bed 
    elevation is represented by two models 1) vector contour lines, and 
    2)  grids.
  Arc Attribute Names
    elev
  Arc Attribute Descriptions
    elev (integer)
      The elevation value of the line.
  Lineage
    West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey's Coal Stratigraphic Database
    contains location and stratigraphic data for approximately 100,000 points.  
    Data has been obtained from a variety of sources over the last 100 years.  
    Some data points were collected in the field by Survey geologists.  
    Frequently, drill hole data has been obtained directly from coal companies 
    and from permitting files at the WV Department of Environmental Protection.  
    Other data points were taken from mine maps.  The elevations of the bottom 
    of the coal bed are taken from the Coal Stratigraphic Database and used to 
    make a computerized elevation model that is adjusted by geologists to 
    reflect information about surface mining or to make the contours for 
    vertically adjacent coals beds better conform to each other.

Elevation Control Points (ELVPTS)
  Description
    This point coverage shows the location of data points used in the 
    construction of the coal bed elevation models.  This coverage provides the 
    user with the density of data control points used to construct the model so 
    that one can judge the relative reliability of the map throughout its 
    extent.  The locations of control points for the elevation and thickness 
    models are not necessarily the same.  Some points have only an elevation or 
    a net coal thickness value.  No data (attributes) are provided for the 
    control points. 
  Lineage
    Extensive time is spent by project geologists validating and correlating the 
    many data points in the stratigraphic database.  Elevations are looked at in
    relation to adjacent data points and vertical relationships.  This requires
    several sweeps through the entire data set for a study area.  This coverage 
    reflects the state or instance of the stratigraphic database when the CBMP 
    elevation model was created.  Since the stratigraphic database is 
    continually being updated, it was necessary to preserve the control point 
    locations as they existed at the time the model was generated.

Net Coal Thickness (ISOPOLY)
  Description
    The purpose of this coverage is to illustrate the variation in the thickness 
    of coal in a bed.  Each polygon has a value of average thickness.  For 
    example, An area with a net coal thickness between zero and six inches would 
    be assigned an average thickness value of 3 inches, and an area with a net 
    coal thickness between six and twelve inches would be assigned an average 
    thickness value of 9 inches, etc.  Average thickness values are also 
    calculated in 12 inch intervals.  Net coal thickness is also represented by 
    a grid model which is more appropriate for detailed analysis.  The polygon 
    model is better for display and cursory analysis purposes. 
  Polygon Attribute Names:
    avgthk6
    avgthk12
  Attribute Descriptions:
    avgthk6
      The average thickness of the area covered by the polygon assigned in 6 
      inch intervals.  
    avgthk12
      The average thickness of the area covered by the polygon assigned in 12 
      inch intervals.  
Lineage
    The net coal thickness values are calculated for all valid data points and 
    Surface III software creates 30 meter grids for each 7.5 minute quadrangle. 
    These are converted to ArcInfo grids (ISOGRD). An ArcInfo AML was developed 
    to create a polygon coverage from the individual 7.5 minute ISOGRDs.  First, 
    each grid is re-classed into 6 inch intervals and then converted into 
    polygons.  These individual coverages are then combined into one single 
    coverage and are dissolved where average values are the same for adjacent 
    quadrangles.  Then the arcs are generalized and splined.  Some smaller 
    polygons are eliminated due to the simplification of the arcs.  Topology is 
    rebuilt and then each new polygon is assigned average thickness attributes  
    by referencing back to the original grid.

Thickness Control Points (THKPTS)
  Description
    This point coverage shows the location of data points used in the 
    construction of the  net coal thickness, total bed thickness, and percent 
    parting models for a coal bed.  This coverage provides the user with the 
    density of data control points used to construct the model so that one can 
    judge the relative reliability of the map throughout its extent. The 
    locations of control points for the elevation and thickness models are not
    necessarily the same.  Some points have only an elevation value or a net 
    coal thickness value.  No data (attributes) are provided for the control 
    points. 
  Lineage
    Extensive time is spent by project geologists validating and correlating the 
    many data points in the stratigraphic database.  Elevations are looked at in
    relation to adjacent data points and vertical relationships so the elevation 
    and net coal thickness models will be as consistent and correct as possible.  
    This requires several sweeps through the entire data set for a study area.  
    This coverage reflects the state or instance of the stratigraphic database 
    when the CBMP thickness models were created.  Since the stratigraphic 
    database is continually being updated, it was necessary to preserve the 
    control point locations as they existed at the time the model was generated.


Percent Partings (PRTPOLY)
  Description
    The purpose of this grid is to illustrate the variation in the volume 
    percent of non-coal partings in a bed and provide an approximate measure of 
    the amount of reject material that could be expected from a mining 
    operation.  A volume percent of 30 is equal to approximately 50% by weight.  
    Each polygon has a value of average percent parting.  For example, an area 
    with a percent parting between zero and five would be assigned an average 
    percent value of 2.5, and an area with a percent parting between five and 
    ten would be assigned an average percent value of 7.5, etc.  Percent parting 
    is also represented by a grid model which is more appropriate for detailed 
    analysis.  The polygon model is better for display and cursory analysis 
    purposes. 
  Polygon Attribute Name
    avgprt
  Attribute Description
    avgprt
      The average percent parting of the area covered by the polygon assigned 
      by intervals of 5 percent.
  Lineage
    The net coal thickness values and percent partings values are calculated for 
    all valid data points and Surface III software creates 30 meter grids for 
    each 7.5 minute quadrangle.  These are converted to ArcInfo grids (ISOGRD, 
    PRTTHK).  A percent partings grid is calculated in ArcInfo from the 
    net coal thickness and parting thickness grids using grid math:
    PRTGRD=((PRTTHK/IOSGRD+PRTTHK)*100). An ArcInfo AML was developed to create 
    a polygon coverage from the individual 7.5 minute PRTGRDs.  First, each grid 
    is re-classed into 6 inch intervals and then converted into polygons.  These 
    individual coverages are then combined into one single coverage and are 
    dissolved when the same average percent occurs in adjacent quadrangles. 
    Then the arcs are generalized and splined.  Some smaller polygons are 
    eliminated due to the simplification of the arcs.  Topology is rebuilt and 
    then each new polygon is assigned average percent parting attribute by 
    referencing back to the original grid.
 
Total Bed Thickness (BEDPOLY)
   Description
     The purpose of this grid is to illustrate the variation in the total sum of 
     coal and in-bed, non-coal partings, often referred to as bed or seam 
     height. The bed height generally represents how high the face would be in a 
     mining operation and is an important consideration in evaluating the 
     minability of a bed.  Each polygon has a value of average thickness.  For 
     example, an area with a total bed thickness between zero and six inches 
     would be assigned an average thickness value of 3 inches, and an area with 
     a total bed thickness between six and twelve inches would be assigned an 
     average thickness value of 9 inches, etc.  Average thickness values are 
     also calculated in 12 inch intervals.  Total bed thickness is also 
     represented by a grid model which is more appropriate for detailed 
     analysis.  The polygon model is better for display and cursory analysis 
     purposes. 
  Polygon Attribute Names:
    avgthk6
    avgthk12
  Attribute Descriptions:
    avgthk6
      The average thickness of the area covered by the polygon assigned in 6 
      inch intervals.  
    avgthk12
      The average thickness of the area covered by the polygon assigned in 12 
      inch intervals.  
  Lineage
    The net coal thickness values and percent partings values are calculated for 
    all valid data points and Surface III software creates 30 meter grids for 
    each 7.5 minute quadrangle.  These are converted to ArcInfo grids (ISOGRD, 
    PRTTHK). The total bed height or thickness is the sum of the net Coal 
    thickness value and the parting thickness. The BEDGRD is calculated with 
    grid math by adding together the two grids (BEDGRD=ISOGRD+PRTTHK). An 
    ArcInfo AML was developed to create a polygon coverage from the individual 
    7.5 minute PRTGRDs.  First, each grid is re-classed into 6 inch intervals 
    and then converted into polygons.  These individual coverages are then 
    combined into one single coverage and are dissolved when the same average 
    percent occurs in adjacent quadrangles. Then the arcs are generalized and 
    splined.  Some smaller polygons are eliminated due to the simplification of 
    the arcs.  Topology is rebuilt and then each new polygon is assigned average 
    percent parting attribute by referencing back to the original grid.

Geological Discontinuities (DISCNT)
  Description
    This coverage is comprised of vectors representing various types of coal bed 
    discontinuities encountered in underground coal mines.  These are features 
    that disrupt mining such as stream channeling (washouts) contemporaneous or 
    penecontemporaneous with peat deposition, geologic faults, areas of 
    uncontrollable roof or floor, excessive parting, or other local features.
    These features are captured as a GIS coverage because many are local in 
    nature and may or may not be reflected in other coverages such as the net 
    coal thickness grid.  To an experienced coal geologist or mining engineer, 
    these features serve as a warning sign as to what sorts of discontinuities 
    may be encountered in mining operations in that bed elsewhere in the region.
  Arc Attribute Names
    apcard
    type
    reported
  Attribute Descriptions
    apcard
      An identifier to the source map of a discontinuity arc; 6 character field. 
    type (binary)
      A code indicating the general type of discontinuity.  The purpose of this
      code is to be able to draw different linetypes on a map since another 
      attribute contains the actual text used to describe the discontinuity on 
      the mine map.  Codes:
          1 : bad top
          2 : bad bottom
          3 : channel feature
          4 : seam split
          5 : geologic fault

    reported
      A text field (25 characters) containing the actual text from the mine map 
      describing the discontinuity.
  Lineage
    Discontinuities are obtained from mine maps.  In addition to mined area 
    outlines, vectors are digitized that represent discontinuities shown on 
    the mine map.  These are compiled by coal bed.

Mining Extent Unknown (EXTUNK)
  Description
    The vectors in this coverage indicate where a map of underground mine 
    workings has been truncated.  It should be used in conjunction with the 
    mining/remaining resource coverage to completely understand the mine polygon 
    boundary.  On some mine map documents, it is obvious the mine workings 
    continue beyond the edge of the document, but are cut off.  The "extent 
    unknown" vector delineates the edge of such incomplete mine maps.  This 
    coverage serves to warn the user that additional mining almost certainly 
    exists beyond the "extent unknown" vector, but unfortunately a map of the 
    additional mine workings is unavailable at this time.
  Arc Attribute Name
    apcard
  Attribute Description
    apcard
      An identifier to the source map of 'the extent unkown' arc; 6 character field.  
  Lineage
    These arcs are obtained from mine maps.  Once satisfactorily geo-referenced, 
    a vector coverage of each mine map image is created by on-screen digitizing 
    of the outer edges of the mine, including the edges where the mine workings 
    have been truncated.  If no other mine map is located that includes the 
    missing works, a vector is created to delineate the truncated boundary. 
    These vectors are compiled by coal bed and can be drawn with a map symbology 
    to let the user quickly see that a mine is not entirely represented.
 
Aperture Card Label (APCDLBL)
  Description
    This point coverage is comprised of identifiers for additional mine map 
    documents (besides the primary one used for the polygon attribute) That were 
    required to 
    assemble the complete boundary of some underground mine polygons.  When used 
    in conjunction with the corresponding mining/remaining resource coverage, 
    all the points within an underground mine polygon will provide identifiers 
    to all the map sources for the mine polygon.  The complete area covered by 
    an underground mine is frequently assembled from multiple documents.  The 
    identifier for the document contributing the most information to the entire 
    mine polygon is used for the attributes of that polygon. The source of the 
    remainder of the polygon is documented with identifiers within this 
    coverage. 
  Point Attribute Name  
    apcard
  Attribute Description
    apcard
      An 8 character field containing an identifier to an additional source
      document (in addition to the primary one used in allmng.pat) used in the 
      construction of the mine polygon in which this label is located. 
  Lineage
    These points/labels are obtained from mine maps.  In some cases, a single 
    mine can only be portrayed by a compilation of pieces from several mine 
    maps.  When this occurs, only one aperture card/source document number is 
    assigned to the polygon; the number from the map that showed the largest 
    portion of the mine.  The location of the label is approximately in the 
    center of the mine polygon's area that was obtained from that source.