Geologic Distribution: Holmium and other REE are found in minor amounts (0.05%) in monazite1. Monazite is present in most coal in trace amounts 2. Monazite was found in trace amounts in 22 of 24 coal samples examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in an unpublished study by the WVGES. Holmium was detected in only 47 of 546 samples analyzed and averaged 0.52 ppm in those coals. Using these 47 analyses Ho statistically correlated slightly with ash yield and other REE especially erbium (Er), dysprosium (Dy) and gadolinium (Gd) present in monazite. Because of the limited number of samples holmium show no stratigraphic or areal trends in abundance.
Economic Impact: Holmium has no specific uses and Ho in coal has no economic impact 1.
Environmental Impact: Holmium and other rare earth elements in coal have no environmental impact 2.
1. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
2. Swaine, D.J., (1990)
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