Geologic Distribution: The mode of occurrence of tin in coal is in detrital mineral matter 1. In SEM studies numerous tin minerals were identified, including five Sn oxides, two Sn sulfides, one Ni-Sn oxide and one Sn-Fe-Cu sulfide and Sn-Cu-Pb oxides an Sn carbonates and other silicates 2. Whole coal tin averaged 2.20 ppm in West Virginia coals. Despite published relationships between tin and mineral matter, tin statistically correlated only slightly with ash yield and ash related elements such as zirconium (Zr), hafnium (Hf), niobium (Nb), silver (Ag), chromium (Cr) and vanadium (V). The stratigraphic distribution of tin showed a variable average abundance with a distinct trend showing very low values in Pocahontas and New River Formation coals, moderate values in lower Kanawha Formation coals, and higher and variable Sn averages in the middle Kanawha Formation and higher coals in West Virginia. High tin values were in coals in Boone, Logan, Mingo and Webster counties southern West Virginia and deep core samples from Wetzel and Marion counties in northern West Virginia (see cautionary note page). Less than 4 ppm coals were distributed throughout the state.
Economic Impact: Tin in coal has no economic impact. Tin has a multitude of important economic uses.
Environmental Impact: Tin in coal has no detrimental environmental impact in mining and use 1.
1. Swaine, D.J., (1990)
2. Finkelman, R.B., (1981)
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