Geologic Distribution: Of 546 samples analyzed, only 11 had detectable levels of thulium with a mean whole coal Tm of 0.28 ppm (±0.14 ppm). These samples were confined to mainly Kanawha Formation coals with 4 from the No. 2 Gas coal, 3 from the Powellton, and others were from the Sewell, Winifrede and Coalburg coals. Thulium is present in trace quantities (0.007%) in the mineral monazite 1. Monazite was found in trace amounts in 22 of 24 coal samples examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in an unpublished study by the WVGES and probably is present in most coals.
Economic Impact: Thulium in coal is of no economic importance, and because of its high price Tm has few applications 1.
Environmental Impact: Thulium has low toxicity and emissions during coal combustion and mining are not considered an environmental hazard 1.
1. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
|To request specific information from a Survey geologist click here.|
Page last revised: March 2, 2002
Please send questions, comments, and/or suggestions to webmaster.
Page created and maintained by: West Virginia Geological & Economic Survey Address: Mont Chateau Research Center Cheat Lake exit off I-68 P.O. Box 879 Morgantown, WV 26507-0879 Telephone: 1-800-WV-GEOLOgy (1-800-984-3656) or 304-594-2331 FAX: 304-594-2575 Hours: 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. EST, Monday - FridayPermission to reproduce this material is granted if acknowledgment is given to the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey.