WVGES Trace Elements in West Virginia Coals

Click Here To Go To Trace Elements Framed Home Page BROMINE (Br)

Bromine Stratigraphic DistributionBromine Geographic DistributionBromine Summary Statistics

Bromine is erratic and low in abundance in West Virginia coals and is of minor environmental concern.

Geologic Occurrence: Bromine is generally inferred to be associated with the organic fraction of coal, but some Br may be associated with clays and iron oxides in coal 1.  Bromine averaged 23.88 ppm in West Virginia coals on a whole coal basis, with low Br in coals of the Upper Pennsylvanian and higher and more variable Br in Middle and Lower Pennsylvanian coals, resulting in a geographic distribution showing low Br in the northern coalfield and higher and erratic values in southern West Virginia.  Highest individual Br values were mainly in the Sewell coal.

Economic Impact:  Bromine is used in photography, making fumigants, sanitizers and flameproofing agents 2. Bromine in coal has no known economic impact.

Environmental Impact: The prime source of Br in the atmosphere is sea spray 1.  Coal fired power plants and volcanoes are also sources of Br in the atmosphere 1.

    1.  Swaine, D.J., (1990)
    2.  CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
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